General Information about Iran

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Islamic Republic of Iran

National Day:

Day of Islamic Republic, April 1, 1979 (12th of Iranian calendar month of Farvardin in 1358 solar hegira)


Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates:

32 00 N, 53 00 E

Land boundaries:

total: 5,440 km

border countries:

Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km


2,440 km; note – Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Geography – note:

strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

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80,840,713 (July 2014 est.)

Capital city:



Made of three equal horizontal bands, green at the top, white in the middle, and red at the bottom. The national emblem (Allah) decorates the flag in red in the middle of the white band. Allahh-u-Akbar (God is the Greatest) written in white and Arabic is repeated eleven times along the lower edge of the green band and also the upper edge of the red band.

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Metropolitan cities:

Iran has 31 provinces (ostanha, singular – ostan); Alborz, Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi (West Azerbaijan), Azarbayjan-e Sharqi (East Azerbaijan), Bushehr, Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan-e Jonubi (South Khorasan), Khorasan-e Razavi (Razavi Khorasan), Khorasan-e Shomali (North Khorasan), Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh va Bowyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan.

Important Ports:

Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, Chabahar, and Khorramshahr located in the south on the coasts of the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf, and ports of Turkmen, Nowshahr, Anzali and Astara stretching along the north, on the brim of the Caspian Sea, are the most important ports of Iran.

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Geography – note:

strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

Official Language:

Iran’s official language is Persian (Farsi) which is spoken in different dialects.

Other Languages:

In addition to Persian, some other languages such as Turkish (29%), Kurdish (9%), Luri (2%), Baluchi (1%) and Arabic (1%) are spoken in Iran. Most of the educated people, especially in big cities, are familiar with English language as well.

Religions and their followers:

Most of the Iranians are Muslim who are mostly Shiite (Jafari Sect). Jafari Shia Muslims make up the majority of the population (89%), Sunni Muslims about (9%), and Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians altogether about (2%).

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Iran’s currency is Rial abbreviated as Rls. However, in most transactions, Tuman which equals ten Rials is the prevailing currency.

Monetary denominations:

One Tuman equals ten Rials. Notes of 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000, 50000, and 100000 Rials printed in different sizes are used in daily business activities.

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Iranian rials (IRR) per US dollar

39,000(2017 est.)
18,517.2 (2013 est.)
12,175.5 (2012 est.)
10,254.18 (2010 est.)
9,864.3 (2009)
9,142.8 (2008)

Iran’s international telephone code:


Internet domain: