Shiraz is a city of sophistication that has been celebrated as the heartland of Persian culture for more than 2000 years. Known as the Dar-ol-Elm (House of Learning), the City of Roses ,City of Love and City of Gardens ,Shiraz has become synonymous with education ,nightingales , and poetry . It was one of the most important cities in the medieval Islamic world and was the Iranian capital during the Zand dynasty (AD 1747–79),when many of its most beautiful buildings were built or restored. During the nineteenth century Shiraz was an important center for the distribution of foreign trade, much of which passed through the Persian Gulf port of Bushehr, about 125 miles west of the city. The development of ports in Khuzestan in the early twentieth century, and especially the building of the Trans-Iranian Railway, which bypassed both Shiraz and Bushehr, led to the decline of this trade. Beginning in the 1930s, however, modern industries were developed in Shiraz, initially textile factories, but increasingly more diversified manufacturing after 1965.This city is situated in the south east of Iran and is the capital city of Fars Province ,with a population of about 1700 000. Shiraz is mild in spring and hot in the summer. The autumns in Shiraz are not too cold; however ,the winters tend to be quite cold.